The earliest historical mention of Vigoleno dates back to 1141 when it was an outpost of Piacenza standing guard over the road to Tuscany and a defensive bulwark in the Apennine valleys. In 1200, the fortress came under the control of the Scotti family. Unusually for Italy, they would administer the village almost continuously from the late 14th to the 20th century.
Vigoleno has kept its medieval heritage almost completely intact and is now one of the Borghi più belli d’Italia (an association of Italy’s loveliest small historic towns). The Italian Touring Club has awarded it Orange Flag status, too.