The Modigliana area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, and the earliest historical mention of the town is by Latin writer Titus Livius, who tells of an ambush in which the prefect Gaius Oppius died in Castrum Mutilum in about 200 bc during the Roman military campaign against the Boii, a Gallic tribe, during the conquest of the Aemilia region.
After the barbarian invasions that destroyed Roman Castrum Mutilum, the village of Modigliana was rebuilt in the Middle Ages and was home to the court of Countess Engelhard II. She married the young Tuscan Tegrimo Guidi I of Pistoia in around 923, establishing the dynasty of the Counts of Guidi, who would rule Romagna and Tuscany for over 400 years.
The chronicles record that the people of Modigliana rebelled against the tyranny of the Guidi family in 1377, obtaining the protection of the Lords of Florence. They gave Modigliana its ramparts (finished in 1534) and transformed the Guidi castle into the Florentine fortress that we still see today. The fortress’ decline began in the late 1500s, when the town of Terra del Sole was built, a new strategic military stronghold designed especially to withstand the new firearms.